Postepy Hig Med Dosw. (online), 2012; 66: 991-995
Original Article
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The change of electric potentials in the oral cavity after application of extremely low frequency pulsed magnetic field
Zmiana elektropotencjałów w jamie ustnej po zastosowaniu impulsowego pola magnetycznego z zakresu ELF
Piotr Skomro1  BDE, Danuta Lietz-Kijak1  EF, Edward Kijak2  CD, Olga Bogdziewicz-Wałęsa1  B, Krystyna Opalko1  A
1Department of Propaedeutics in Dentistry, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
2Department of Dental Prosthetics, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
Corresponding author
Piotr Skomro, M.D., PhD, Department of Propaedeutics in Dentistry, Pomeranian Medical University, Al. Powstańców Wlkp. 72, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland; e-mail: zpropst@pum.edu.pl

Authors' Contribution:
A - Study Design, B - Data Collection, C - Statistical Analysis, D - Data Interpretation, E - Manuscript Preparation, F - Literature Search, G - Funds Collection

Received:  2012.03.21
Accepted:  2012.11.09
Published:  2012.12.11

Streszczenie
Pojawiające się w jamie ustnej elektropotencjały nie są obojętne, gdyż mogą wywoływać różne schorzenia oraz powodować występowanie subiektywnych nieprzyjemnych odczuć, których le­czenie jest bardzo trudne. Celem badań była ocena elektropotencjałów w jamie ustnej u pacjen­tów użytkujących metalowe wypełnienia i uzupełnienia protetyczne po zastosowaniu impulsowe­go pola magnetycznego z zakresu ELF. Badania przeprowadzono u 84 pacjentów. Do zabiegów wykorzystano urządzenie Viofor JPS Classic, które generuje impulsowe pole magnetyczne o ni­skiej indukcji z zakresu ELF (Exremely Low Frequence). Średnie wartości elektropotencjałów w badaniu wstępnym były prawie takie same w obu grupach badanych i wynosiły odpowiednio 148,8 mV i 145,5 mV. Po kolejnych zabiegach polem ELF stwierdzono stały spadek średnich wartości elektropotencjałów. Spadek ten był istotny statystycznie. Natomiast w grupie kontrolnej średnie wartości elektropotencjałów charakteryzowały się tendencją wzrostową. Uzyskane istot­ne statystycznie zmniejszenie elektropotencjałów w jamie ustnej pacjentów użytkujących meta­lowe wypełnienia i uzupełnienia protetyczne, po zastosowaniu urządzenia Viofor JPS Classic, sugeruje wpływ impulsowego pola magnetycznego ELF na zahamowanie procesów elektroche­micznych oraz korozji dentystycznych stopów metali.
Słowa kluczowe: elektropotencjały jamy ustnej • elektrometalozy • zmienne pola magnetyczne ELF


Summary
Electric potentials occurring in the oral cavity deserve attention as they may cause various dise­ases and subjective feelings, which are very difficult to treat. The aim of this study was to eva­luate the electric potentials within the oral cavity in patients with metal fillings and metal pro­sthetic restorations, after using a pulsed electromagnetic field. The study was carried out on 84 patients. The Viofor JPS Classic device was used in the treatment. It generates a pulsed electro­magnetic field with low induction of the extremely low frequency (ELF) range. Average values of electric potentials in the preliminary test were about the same in both groups; they were 148.8 mV and 145.5 mV. After another appliance of ELF fields there was found a steady decline in the average value of electric potentials in the study group. This decrease was statistically highly si­gnificant, while mean values of electric potentials in the control group were characterized by a slightly upward tendency. The obtained statistically significant reduction of electric potentials in the oral cavity of patients having metal fillings and metal prosthetic restorations, after applica­tion of the Viofor JPS Classic device, implies a huge impact of ELF pulsed electromagnetic field on inhibition of electrochemical processes, as well as on inhibition of dental alloy corrosion.
Key words: electric potentials in the oral cavity • oral electrogalvanism • variable ELF magnetic fields




Introduction
As a result of dental treatment we can introduce different metal alloys in the patient's oral environment. Every me­tal immersed in electrolyte solution attains its specified, characteristic potential. The existence of different poten­tials between two zones of the same metal or two different metals in the same electrolyte leads to electrochemical cell formation and microcurrent flow. Saliva of the mouth is a good ionic conductor; it fulfills a role as a good electroly­te [3,5,19]. It is able to absorb new metal ions, which me­ans that in the oral cavity of patients who are using me­tal fillings and prosthetic appliances, there will never be a balance between metal and electrolyte. The acidic envi­ronment in the mouth causes the simultaneous formation of many microcells [1,3].
Electric potentials in the oral cavity are not negligible as regards the mucous membranes, parodontium and lips, as they may cause various diseases and the occurrence of sub­jective feelings, which are very difficult to treat.
In this study we decided to assess whether a variable ma­gnetic field can affect the formation or elimination of the electric potentials.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the electric poten­tials within the oral cavity in patients with metal fillings and metal prosthetic restorations, after using a pulsed elec­tromagnetic field with low induction with the ELF range.
Materials and Methods
The concept of the Viofor JPS system is a device based on the JPS method. The abbreviation JPS is taken from the names of this method's authors, i.e. professors Feliks Jaroszyk, Janusz Paluszak, and Aleksander Sieroń. To date, more than 120 scientific papers reporting use of the Viofor JPS system have been published in journals with an inter­national scope. More information about the JPS Viofor system can be found in the references. Using the Viofor JPS system device and system elliptic applicator (both de­vices are manufactured by Med & Life Poland) obtained a variable inhomogeneous magnetic field, which was applied to the examined patients. Spectral structure of the gene­rated magnetic field consisted of a set of two basic pulse types with saw-shaped appearance (falling in the range of frequencies from 180 Hz to 195 Hz), a set of basic pulse packages in the frequency range 12.2-29 Hz, groups of pac­kages (2.8-7.6 Hz) and series of packages (0.08-0.3 Hz). The Viofor JPS system device gives the possibility to cho­ose different spectral compositions of alternating magne­tic field programs. The essence of various programs rests on selection of these mechanisms' mutual duration time: electrodynamic E effects on ionic currents in the body, magnetomechanical M magnetic field effects the partic­les with unadjusted magnetic spins and body's liquid ca­tions and anions of ion cyclotron resonance (ICR). We adopted the symbols M1 and P2 or P3 for determining ap­propriate programs: M1 means the application of the ma­gnetic field with a constant average magnetic induction; P2 or P3 is the variable magnetic field application based on two basic types of pulses (using JPS) in a way that the total length of mechanism E and M is comparable to the duration of ICR [7,8,9]. Details concerning the technical specification of the Viofor JPS device and elliptical appli­cator for the M1 P2 program are contained in the User's Manual [18] on page 36 Table 9. From the data contained therein it may indicate that for the P2 M1 program on the surface of the elliptical applicator, the average value of in­duction, where I means the intensity set at JPS regulator (0.5-12). While, the peak induction. Both B_ Bmax=100 • I and Bmax are expressed in µT.
Procedures for determining the magnetic induction
We used two courses of action in adopting procedures for determining the magnetic induction B. The first involved a theoretical analysis based on a known combination of redu­cing the induction with the distance x, described functio­nally as B=f (x-2). The second way was to verify the abo­ve theoretical connection by measurements of induction B . For the measurement of induction B a magnetometer made in France, CHAUVIN ARNOUX C.A42 was used. Because the magnetometer CHAUVIN ARNOUX C.A42 was checked and certified by the Polish Office of Weights and Measures, in the further analysis only results of avera­ge induction Bz obtained with the magnetometer were taken into account. The Bz values were measured at 1 cm distan­ce from the elliptical applicator surface. It follows that the reduction of induction at 1 cm distant from the elliptical applicator surface did not exceed 20% of its initial value. In this paper, including this particular distance range, the values of magnetic induction associated with the impact of alternating magnetic fields on biological tissues of te­sted patients should be considered. Since the suppression factor of a variable magnetic field through biological tis­sues is negligible, the analysis of induction changes with the distance made in the air environment are sufficient.
Measurement of the electric potentials ΔV
To measure the electric potentials the digital voltmeter VioforDent was used. An additional advantage of digital voltmeters is the convenience of their application and im­mediately displayed measurement.
Research
The study was carried out on 84 patients aged from 37 to 71 years. All patients had metal fillings or metal the same alloy prosthetic restorations for at least 5 years. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 42 pa­tients who were sent for ELF field treatment from dental indications. The procedures were performed using a Viofor JPS Classic device with elliptical applicator for 15 days. This appliance generates a pulsed electromagnetic field with low induction of the extremely low frequency (ELF) range. The elliptic applicator produces an inhomogeneous variable magnetic field. Group II was a control group of 42 patients who reported to the dental surgery for treatment, but did not require application of ELF field treatment. The electric potentials ΔV were consecutively measured twi­ce with a digital millivoltmeter. One electrode was in con­tact with the metal and the second electrode with the base of the oral cavity. Both results were summed up, then the average value for the test before surgery after 5, 10 and 15 treatments was calculated. In the control group, ΔV me­asurements were performed at intervals of one week. The results were statistically analyzed, based on Shapiro-Wilk and Wilcoxon test.
Results
The results are shown in Tables 1 and 2 and Figure 1.
Table 1. Values of the electric potentials ΔV (mV) in the oral cavity of patients from the study group

Table 2. Electric potentials ΔV values (mV) in the oral cavity of patients in the control group

Figure 1. Mean values of the electric potentials ΔV in the oral cavity of patients from the study group and control group

Table 1 shows that the average value of the electric poten­tials ΔV in the oral cavity of patients from group I, using metal fillings and prosthetic appliances, of the ELF field before surgery was 148.8 mV, after the 5th intervention 136.9, after the 10th intervention 123.9 mV, and after the 15th intervention 96.0 mV. Statistically significant diffe­rences were obtained for the value before the treatments and the values after 5, 10 and 15 treatments, and betwe­en the 5th and 15th surgery, and the 10th and 15th surgery. Statistically significant differences were obtained for the values before treatments, values after 5, 10 and 15 treat­ments, between the 5th and 15th surgery, as well as betwe­en the 10th and 15th surgery.
Table 2 shows that the values of electric potentials ΔV in the oral cavity of patients from group II, using metal fillings and prosthetic appliances, increased and was in the 1st stu­dy 145.5 mV, in the 2nd test 148.7 mV, and 154.2 mV in the 3rd study. Between the 1st and 3rd study, a statistically signi­ficant increase of the electric potentials ΔV was observed.
Figure 1 shows that the average values of electric potentials in the preliminary test were about the same in both treat­ment groups and equaled 148.8 mV and 145.5 mV. After several surgeries with ELF fields, a steady decline in avera­ge values of the electric potentials from 148.8 mV to 103.1 mV after 15 treatments was found. This decrease was high­ly statistically significant. By contrast, in the control group the mean values of electric potentials were rising slightly.
Discussion
Several studies have found that increasing the amounts of certain chemical elements and their salts in saliva leads to the emergence of microcurrents in the mouth. Then a galvanic battery arises and the generated electricity cau­ses corrosion of dental alloys and an unpleasant sensa­tion in the mouth. To these changes disposes acidic sali­va, and local mechanical and chemical irritations [1,18]. Electrochemical reactions that may occur in the oral cavi­ty gave rise to the electrogalvanism concept. This pheno­menon is currently being studied. The result of this pro­cess is not only a loss of aesthetic appearance of the alloy (dulling of the surface) or worsening material damage. The most important are the biological nature consequen­ces, that is to say the negative impact of the released ions on the human body. The resulting galvanic currents can affect the physiological activity of body tissues, the con­sequences being emerging lesions called electrometalosis [3,5,15,16,19,20]. From the literature it is known that in he­althy people, who do not have metal alloys in the oral cavi­ty, a difference in electric potential of about 30-50 ΔV did not cause any clinical symptoms [5]. The results obtained by other authors confirm that if in the oral cavity there is at least one metal alloy, it increases the value of electric potentials. The research shows that the presence of elec­tric potentials above 120 mV is an indication to remove the metal from the oral cavity [5]. Our research results, both in the test group before using ELF fields and in the con­trol group, showed the average value of electric potentials above 145 mV. In addition, in patients in the control gro­up after two weeks there was an electric potential incre­ase in the oral cavity, which may indicate different elec­trochemical processes occurring during the contact with saliva and consumed food. Our own research found much higher potentials, suggesting the need of replacing metal additions in these patients' mouths.
Many authors have reported that pulsed electromagnetic fields, in English literature called extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF), support the processes of tissue respiration, activate or inhibit enzymatic reactions, stimu­late the activity of serum enzymes, affect the acid-alkaline balance and water-electrolyte balance, accelerate the an­giogenesis process, and affect protein synthesis, the pro­cesses of replication, transcription of nucleic acids and the processes of cell proliferation [2,4,11,14].
Researchers agree that the electromagnetic fields' biophy­sical effects are the result of the impact on the uncompen­sated magnetic spins of paramagnetic elements, effects on components of cell membranes, displacement of moving electrical charges as a result of electrodynamic, magneto­mechanical, ion cyclotron resonance and Hall effects, de­polarization of the cells with their own automatism, and changes of certain physico-chemical properties of water [13,14]. Based on these data, reducing the value of electric potentials in the oral cavity may be the result of stopping the precipitation to the saliva of such elements as copper, zinc and iron. Reduction of these elements in patients' sa­liva after the ELF field surgery may be the result of basic physical mechanisms, where the field reacts with inorga­nic matter. The magnetic ions include iron, titanium, vana­dium, cobalt, chromium, nickel, copper and molybdenum; their magnetic state can be changed in the presence of ma­gnetic fields [10]. Concentration decrease of copper, zinc and iron in the patient's body may also result from another mechanism, when the field impacts on the uncompensated electric charges. As a result of electrochemical processes in patients' oral cavity there appear ionized elements, so in a physical sense their charges are uncompensated. Many studies indicate that the activation of the electromagnetic field changes the direction of moving electric charges, so that the ions begin to move in a certain passage of wheel radius. Exceeding a certain induction of external magnetic field value leads the paramagnetic elements' axis to being set along the magnetic field force lines. This in turn inhi­bits the movement of these ions. The consequence of the above mentioned field's functioning mechanisms may be a redistribution of ions, which leads to firmness and reten­tion of electrochemical processes and metal corrosion pro­cesses in the oral cavity [6,12,17,20].
Conclusions
1. Mean values of electric potentials in the oral cavity of patients using metal fillings and metal prosthetic resto­rations are very high and indicate the presence of large amounts of metal ions.
2. After treatment using alternating ELF magnetic field, re­duced values of potentials ΔV were observed, which pre­vents the need for replacing the prosthetic restorations.
3. The obtained statistically significant reduction of elec­tric potentials, in the oral cavity of patients with metal fillings and metal prosthetic restorations, after applica­tion of the Viofor JPS Classic device, implies a huge impact of ELF pulsed electromagnetic field on inhibi­tion of electrochemical processes, as well as on inhibi­tion of dental alloy corrosion.
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The authors have no potential conflicts of interest to declare.