Mechanisms of osteoporosis development in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Agnieszka Matuszewska 1, Jacek Szechiński 2
1 - Katedra i Zakład Farmakologii Uniwersytetu Medycznego we Wrocławiu
2 - Katedra i Klinika Reumatologii I Chorób Wewnętrznych Uniwersytetu Medycznego we Wrocławiu
Postepy Hig Med Dosw
2014; 68 145-152
ICID: 1088339
Article type: Review article
 
 
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is progressive, chronic, autoimmune, systemic connective tissue disease. It affects 0,5-1% population. RA manifests as inflammation of symmetrical mainly small and medium joints with synovial hypertrophy, extra-articular lesions and systemic complications. Depending on intensity and duration of RA in imaging studies the patients demonstrate narrowing of articular fissures, presence of geodes, erosions, subluxations and/or synostoses. Progressive bone mass loss in the joint involved by the morbid process and in the entire skeleton was also described. Local (periarticular) osteoporosis is linked to the presence of cytokines and growth factors, which regulate reciprocal interactions between osteoclasts, osteoblasts and immune system cells. In the inflamed joint accumulate synoviocytes of fibroblast phenotype, synoviocytes of macrophage phenotype, antigen presenting cells, lymphocytes T, activated lymphocytes B, plasma cells and neutrophils. Increased expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANKL), macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), presence of TNFα, IL-1, IL-6, IL-7, IL-17 influences pathological loss of bone mass. Rheumatoid arthritis is an important risk factor of generalised osteoporosis and fractures, involved in FRAX (fracture risk assessment) algorythm. Generalised osteoporosis in patients with RA has a multifactorial aetiology. Its development reflects effects of both: factors linked to the disease (presence of proinflammatory cytokines, disability of the patients, applied therapy) and classical risk factors of osteoporosis (e.g. advanced age, sex, post-menopausal period, genetic predisposition, low peak bone mass, low body weight, deficiency of calcium and vitamin D, tobacco smoking).
DOI: 10.5604/17322693.1088339
PMID 24491906 - kliknij tu by zobaczyć artykuł w bazie danych PubMed
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